Inscriptions of Aphrodisias

§ 1 Inscriptions, ancient texts inscribed on stone or other durable materials, are an important source of access to various ancient societies, and particularly the worlds of ancient Greece and Rome. These texts survive in large numbers, and are widely used by historians as one of the primary sources of direct evidence on the history, language, rituals, and practices of the ancient world. Words inscribed on stone, a skilful and expensive process, may tend to be élite texts, informing us about an unequal slice of ancient society; many are indeed official documents such as civic decrees, honours to emperors or prominent citizens, dedications to gods, or records of the establishment of privileged buildings or institutions. On the other hand these texts also include gravestones, market-stall placeholders and labels, seat reservations, graffiti, and even curse tablets, so a wider demographic may be represented than is at first evident.

§ 2 The conventional study and publication of inscriptions have been undertaken by a particular sub-discipline of experts with their own conventions, learned bodies, publication series, and journals. The texts themselves are an awkward category, neither poetry, history, or philosophy, nor even in the same category as literature preserved by the direct manuscript tradition, but documentary texts with very little beauty or elegance of language. The objects on which the texts are inscribed, the stelae, statues, wall panels, tablets, and grave monuments, are studied by archaeologists and art historians for whom the written texts are little more than a footnote, if not an inconvenience. This fact has tended to keep inscriptions in an academic limbo—not quite literary text and not quite archaeological object. They have rarely received the attention they deserve either from philologists or material culture specialists.

§ 3 By publishing Inscriptions of Aphrodisias,[1] a corpus of almost two thousand texts, mostly in Greek, spanning nearly a millennium, but from a single, marble-rich city in Asia Minor, in electronic format we are taking the opportunities offered by the medium for a radical reappraisal of this body of material, setting it both in a literary and in an archaeological context. Images, plans, and excavation records make the objects accessible to archaeologists in a way that has often eluded previous publications. The analytic tools and methods stemming from literary and linguistic computing—text encoding and subject-based markup—open up the inscriptions to textual analysis to a similarly uncommon degree. Some of the elements of electronic publications discussed further below are directly relevant, and essential, to these aims.

EpiDoc Guidelines

§ 4 The EpiDoc Guidelines, recommendations for XML mark-up of epigraphic documents, were originally conceived in 2000, by Tom Elliot, then director of the Ancient World Mapping Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, with Hugh Cayless and Amy Hawkins. The guidelines and other tools have matured considerably through extensive discussion in online fora such as the Markup list, at several conferences, and through the experience of various pilot projects.[2] The first major—but not by any means the only—epigraphic project to adopt and pilot the EpiDoc recommendations has been Inscriptions of Aphrodisias , and the guidelines have reached a degree of stability for the first time during this process.

§ 5 EpiDoc specifies the use of XML (Extensible Markup Language), an industry standard maintained and documented by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C 1996-2007). In simple terms XML is a grammar for defining markup languages—including HTML, the principle language of the Web. XML is a software- and platform-independent language, optimised for compatibility, interchange, and durability, which means that it is ideal for archive storage as well as web and database publication. Since XML, and, now less commonly, its parent language SGML, are used almost universally for encoding and storing data in the commercial sector by computer professionals, publishers, analysts, archivists, economists and so forth, advantages over a proprietary database system are increasingly clear. In particular, it is likely that any changes in technology that require upgrades to either the encoding of XML itself, or its transformation and delivery, will be handled by those with the resources to do so, and that academic projects can coat-tail on this progress, rather than having to invest in expensive solutions themselves or see their materials fall out of date.

§ 6 Many mark-up and publishing systems—HTML on the Web, Rich Text Format used by word processors—encode primarily or only the appearance of a text: paragraphs, line-breaks, bold or italicised text, for example. XML can of course be used in this clumsy way (HTML is an XML language), but its strength is in its ability also to embed information about the structure and semantics of the underlying data. Appearance in any given form, whether a web page, a printed text, or an audio version for the blind, will be handled by a set of stylesheets (computer files that define how to convert an XML document into some other digital format) which can be told, for example, to separate paragraphs by a blank line, to render foreign words in italic face, to put square brackets around editorial supplements, to sort elements in a given order or treat them differently based on context, to index certain types of keywords, such as those foreign words (but not, say, titles or other words in italics), to create tables of contents based on date, genre, or some other category, to pull the data into a larger corpus of similar materials, and many other transformations.

§ 7 Because XML allows for structured and semantic markup, it is not only able to encode data for display or publication, but can be processed, queried by a search engine, or translated into another markup or database system.

§ 8 XML is almost infinitely customisable, with each instantiation being defined in a schema file (either DTD, Document Type Definition, or latterly also RelaxNG or W3C Schema), which provides a menu of tags and attributes and specifies the contexts in which they may occur. Rather than completely reinvent the wheel, and so as to be compatible with established standards, EpiDoc is built using a subset of the XML defined by the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), a widely used XML system in the fields of literature and linguistics, which is particularly suited to the transcription and description of texts and manuscripts.[3] Using a TEI schema maximises the compatibility of EpiDoc encoded inscriptions with other text projects in the humanities generally. The EpiDoc Guidelines, therefore, rather than being an entirely new system, may be considered as a 'Guide to Local Practice' within the larger TEI picture.

§ 9 An essential concept behind EpiDoc is the understanding that this form of semantic markup is not meant to replace traditional epigraphic transcription based on the Leiden conventions. The XML may (and almost inevitably will) encode more information than the range of brackets and sigla used in Leiden, but there will always be a one-to-one equivalence between Leiden codes and markup features in the EpiDoc guidelines. This means that, at a minimum, a text encoded in Leiden can be marked up using EpiDoc XML with very little extra editorial intervention—and in fact tools exist whereby this process can be automated to 95% or better.

§ 10 An EpiDoc file is a representation in XML of the edition of one inscription or a group of inscriptions. At a minimum the file will contain a text in Greek or Latin, probably with editorial sigla. It may also contain apparatus, translation, commentary, description and dating of the text or object, history of the inscription, bibliography, or any other information that is normally published in a scholarly edition. The file may also contain cross references to other texts, files, indices, tables, appendices, and images.

§ 11 An inscription or corpus of inscriptions marked up in EpiDoc XML may be rendered for display or publication in a variety of forms; indexed, processed, queried and searched like a database, but on any computer and in one of countless available search programmes; interchanged with other projects, scholars, software, and encoding systems.

§ 12 As well as offering a choice of rendering styles, this semantic markup allows us to perform intelligent processes and searches upon the marked-up text. We can perform a word search only for certain words when they are complete and not made up in part or in full by editorial supplements, for example. Certain types of damage may be significant in their own right, such as erasure, which might represent damnatio memoriae, or the replacement of one name or expression with another.

Electronic Publication

§ 13 Publishing a text digitally, whether on the Internet or in some static electronic medium such as a DVD-ROM, opens up several possibilities that are not available—or only available to a limited degree—with traditional print publication. As discussed above, I am interested for the purposes of this discussion in electronic resources that take advantage of the media and technologies of the digital world, rather than e-journals or flat texts distributed purely in printable form such as PDF. I have found that many of the advantages (and disadvantages) of electronic publication can be summarised under six broad headings: accessibility; scale; media; hypertext; updates; and iterative research and transparency. In this section I shall explain what I mean by each of these titles, and explore in a little more depth those that are of particular value to the Inscriptions of Aphrodisias publication.


§ 14 It is perhaps particularly obvious, especially in the case of Internet publication, that an item that is available online will have a potentially far larger audience than an academic volume available only from specialist publishers or university libraries. The Perseus Digital Library regularly reports a half a million hits a month, many times more than the number of people worldwide who consult Greek or Latin texts in the original in libraries.[4] Many of these visitors would not be reading classical texts at all without the web. The web has a different audience than an academic library: arguably a less discerning one, perhaps, but certainly a much larger one. As academics it is an essential part of our brief to reach out to non-traditional audiences for our work, and the internet is one excellent venue for this outreach.[5]

§ 15 An internet publication is likely to receive a larger readership than a conventionally published book in part because of the cost: most internet sites are accessible for free, and many of those that do charge have licenses to which many libraries subscribe. There is also the advantage of convenience, since a website can be consulted almost instantaneously from one's desktop computer, rather than having to go to a library, or a bookstore, or purchase from an online store and wait for the title to arrive. This also means that sites can be consulted much more casually, when a single reference is all that is needed. These issues have proved to be particularly important for scholars in, for example, former Eastern Bloc countries, whose academic libraries may not be as well stocked with obscure academic titles as they might wish. Very few libraries outside of the Western world hold copies of the Roman Society's ALA, for example, and colleagues in the East have been very grateful for the web site, which has allowed them to consult these inscriptions for the first time. (This would be even more true for titles of interest to scholars and readers in the third world, of course, with the proviso that the minimum requirement of having access to a computer and reliable internet access may itself be a barrier to many.)

§ 16 Increased accessibility also means that an electronic publication may be consulted by readers who are not traditional academics, and who might never otherwise have seen books on this subject. Academics in subjects other than Classics or Byzantine Studies would probably never have walked down the aisle of the library in which ALA sat on the shelf, but if they had an interest in, say, far eastern inscriptions, or in funerary verse across cultures, they might well stumble across the website with an Internet search engine. Electronic publication fosters not only outreach but interdisciplinarity.


§ 17 Perhaps the most immediately evident difference between the content of the electronic ALA and the paper first edition is the fact that there was virtually no limitation to the quantity of material that could be included. This was particularly important when it came to the photographs illustrating the inscriptions, their monuments, and their archaeological context. In the 1989 volume, there were forty pages of black and white plates with between two and four small images on each. The majority of texts were not illustrated, and many of those that were could not usefully be read from the photographs. In the electronic edition, in contrast, there was no publisher to impose page limits, and the cost of uploading more images is effectively zero, at least as compared to the cost of adding glossy pages to a book. As a result, most of the 250 inscriptions in the web edition are illustrated by between two and eight photographs each, with some having several dozen images including shots of the top and back of the stone, close-ups and ranging shots, pictures of the topographical context of the monument, etc. Images are both black and white and colour, with no implications on the cost, and are a mixture of digital photographs, scanned slides, and sketches or notebook entries.

§ 18 Scale is also an issue for text, as publications in traditional book form include a whole host of space-saving strategies and abbreviations. There are conventions for the parsimonious expression of epigraphic and archaeological data, for bibliographical entries, for references in footnotes, and the like. Epigraphists and papyrologists have spent centuries developing the most efficient and effective conventions for indicating textual condition, damage, restorations, expansions, and so forth. All of these abbreviated forms of communication are very effective at saving space, and are easily comprehensible to the expert. To the uninitiated, however, a sequence such as:

wm, sep. fr. ?sarc. 0.35 x 0.60 x c. 0.12. T.Aph. II/III; av. 0.022
may not be as transparent to understanding as one might desire.


§ 19 Again, once the restrictions of a page limit are removed this abbreviated text can be expanded, conventions can be glossed, descriptions of comments can be repeated where they are relevant, and cross-references can be made more self-explanatory. This is not necessarily to reject generations of scholarship and academic jargon, which is familiar to practitioners of our disciplines and serves a useful function of communication in addition to space-saving. Rather, by expanding, explaining, and illustrating these conventional sigla and abbreviations we are enhancing our scholarly publication by making it more accessible to outsiders. It is still useful to be able to see at a glance and from a single line on the screen that a given text is a white marble funerary fragment, perhaps but not certainly from a sarcophagus, with dimensions width 35 centimetres, height 60 centimetres, and depth circa 12 centimetres, found in the old Temple of Aphrodite and dated by lettering to the second or third centuries C.E. with letters an average of 2.2 cm high. But it is also useful to be able to spell out this information for the uninitiated or casual reader who would still find it of value. The Inscriptions of Aphrodisias publication will contain far more explicit text that could ever fit into a single-volume publication of nearly two thousand inscriptions.


§ 20 As discussed above in the section on scale, an electronic publication can contain a larger selection of digital photographs, in colour as well as the conventional black and white to which a paper publication may be limited. This is not the extent of the use to which new media can be put in an online publication. Online texts may be illustrated not only with images of various sizes, resolutions, and colour depths, but with PDF documents, animated GIF images, audio and video files, Flash animations, QuickTime Virtual Reality objects, three-dimensional reconstructions, and even interactive animations like miniature video games.

§ 21 Many of these multimedia possibilities would seem to be extravagant and frivolous for an epigraphic publication such as Inscriptions of Aphrodisias ; it is hard to imagine the value of audio or video recordings of ancient texts carved in stone. On the other hand it has repeatedly been demonstrated that interactive and animated virtual reality reconstructions of ancient monuments and archaeological sites can not only improve the presentation and dissemination of geographical and topographical data, but also enhance the research into and understanding of the sites by the archaeologists themselves.[6]

§ 22 The other example of electronic media being used to deliver epigraphic and archaeological data in ways that would not have been possible with traditional paper publication, is the case of plans and maps. In the Inscriptions of Aphrodisias project, findspots of in situ texts have been marked on a series of plans which are delivered via the web site in scalable form. These maps are layered and labelled with different kinds of findspots, and the spots themselves are hyperlinked to the respective editions of the inscriptions. Colleagues are currently working on an interface to deliver plans to the web browser via a Scalable Vector Graphics aware plug-in, which would allow dynamic zooming, scaling, and scrolling around the site to find inscriptions in their present or original locations.

§ 23 Almost all of the inscriptions in the project in focus are from a single site, the city of Aphrodisias. In a wider-ranging epigraphic or archaeological project, such as the Bodel 2002-2007 or the proposed digitisation of Inscriptions of Roman Cyrenaica [7] and Inscriptions of Roman Tripolitania , for example, the use of geographic mapping and plotting would also be of great interest. Such a project could use a global mapping API such as, but not necessarily restricted to, that provided by the Google Maps suite of tools, to plot not only findspots and ancient and modern locations of finds, but also places and other geographical entities named or implied in the texts themselves. Protocols are being developed that allow one to map in time as well as space, and to use geographical data stored in standard formats to dynamically generate or populate maps at various scales and levels of detail in a web browser.[8]


§ 24 As well as more advanced multimedia content, perhaps the single most revolutionary aspect of publication on the World Wide Web (or to a lesser extent via other electronic media) is the concept of hypertext or hyperlinking. Both internal and external hyperlinks can transform the way a text or collection is published, and the ways in which both the author and the reader relate to other academic texts.

§ 25 At the simplest level, internal hyperlinks make it easier for the reader to move from one part of the publication to another, follow cross-references, and forge multiple paths through the data provided. Whether the link is to a footnote or a pop-up glossary entry, a cross-reference to an appendix or a related inscription, a reference to a pertinent passage from a table of contents, index, concordance, or prosopography, or a thumbnail image linking to the full-size photograph, it is clearly much more user-friendly to follow a re-traceable path through a publication than to keep a thumb in each of several sections of a bound volume.

§ 26 The author can also use hyperlinks and dynamic referencing to make stronger links between parts of the data, the commentary, and supporting materials. A single passage of narrative commentary, for example, can be linked simultaneously to each of the dozen or more individual inscriptions to which it refers (each of which are then linked back to the commentary), thus allowing movement in either direction from the historical discussion to the texts, or from the single text of interest up to the discussion, and possibly back down to the related texts. Alternatively, the inscriptions might all be hyperlinked to one another with a line of explanatory prose, and the shared commentary drawn dynamically into all texts via references—eliminating the need for repetition and the error-prone maintenance of multiple versions of a single piece of text. By offering all of these options in a publication, with guidance and suggestions from the author, one can allow sideways movement through a discussion and multiple entry points. Where once an academic may have written two or three different books directed at distinct audiences, a hypertext edition now allows countless audiences to create the reading experience that best suits their needs.

§ 27 External hyperlinking is a potentially even more powerful tool. References to journals or articles that have electronic versions—such as those published by the Digital Medievalist , but also online versions of traditional journals such as the American Journal of Archaeology —can be hyperlinked directly to the publication, or possibly even the section or paragraph of the publication in question. This external hyperlinking is not only a matter of convenience, saving a reader time and effort, and reducing the need to go to the library to check each and every reference. It also supplies the reader of the electronic text with more direct access to the checking mechanisms on which replicable academic research depends; when I cite Smith 1999 as saying that a certain object is formally of the early Imperial period, the reader may want to check that this is in fact what Smith claimed, and on what grounds. Hyperlinking of references thus makes the electronic publication more transparent and more verifiable.

§ 28 The final aspect of hyperlinking which enriches a digital publication is the concept of dynamic linking. A project that uses open standards to create electronic resources, as Inscriptions of Aphrodisias adheres to the usage of EpiDoc and the TEI, is able to make available source code and texts in such a way that they can be repurposed by other projects that are using (or are aware of) the same standards. In our web publication, the EpiDoc XML files of all two thousand inscriptions are available both in a single downloadable ZIP file (including the EpiDoc DTD), and as individual downloads linked from the bottom of each page (and with transparent and predictable URLs for dynamic linking). The files, licensed under a Creative Commons attribution license, may be downloaded en masse and incorporated into a larger project; an epigraphic corpus, say, or a more general collection of Greek and Latin texts, or a specialist corpus of texts relating to the provincial Roman economy. Such a project would then run these XML files through their own XSLT stylesheets or process, publish the inscriptions as part of their larger collection, index by XML elements or character strings (not necessarily restricted to the indices we have envisaged), or make the files searchable within a web or database search engine. Perhaps most interestingly, although I do not know of anybody who has done this with EpiDoc XML documents yet, the online XML files available on the InsAph server, or a specific subset of them, can be automatically read by a web service and rendered via stylesheets or other processes into a dynamically served web page, text excerpt, or index by another project.

§ 29 This dynamic linking or live hypertext data sharing is possibly the most powerful potential of electronic publication, and it relies very heavily on the use of open standards by projects that hope to have any kind of relationship with each other. In addition to the use of robust technologies such as XML, markup guidelines like the TEI and EpiDoc, there are interchange and registry protocols such as the Canonical Text Services, both in progress and available, which make such data sharing far more feasible.


§ 30 One of the most obvious advantages of an online website or database is that the data made available therein can be kept constantly up-to-date and relevant. An encyclopaedic site such as the Wikipedia or a corpus such as the Epigraphische Datenbank Heidelberg is not a fossilised print publication that appears once, sits on a library shelf and never changes (until a second edition may appear eventually with updates and corrections). Rather, when a revision, correction, addendum, or any new data need to be added to the database, it can be so added at any time and is available to the world almost instantaneously (albeit with some degree of editorial or review process in most cases). There is a sense in which these works are perpetually "in progress".

§ 31 This can be quite a burden on the author or editor of such a site. The author of an academic work, who is often a working lecturer with other responsibilities, occasional research leave, and a range of research interests, has traditionally spent a year or two writing a book and then, upon its publication, moved on to another project. In the current academic model, most projects are not permanently funded and staffed, and the academics involved cannot afford the time to receive and acknowledge corrections, incorporate new scholarship, and update the site continuously. There are projects, so-called "living databases", which have such constantly developing status, but most projects still do not have this model.

§ 32 A more significant problem arises when one considers the status of a work that has to interact with, and be reviewed within, the world of peer reviewed, cited, traceable, and replicable scholarship. If a later work of secondary scholarship cites an online project such as Inscriptions of Aphrodisias , perhaps arguing with an interpretation of the evidence or adding new data to the historical debate, then that citation needs to be followed back to the source by a reader. If the editor of the cited project reads this new article, agrees with the arguments, spots an error, or otherwise sees a need for change, and simply updates the original site, then the reader following the reference back from the secondary source will no longer see the text upon which the scholar was commenting. This is clearly an unacceptable state of affairs, even if the original text can be recovered from an Internet archive or cache in some form. Now it may be possible to cite a dated, frozen version of the site, as is the case with Wikipedia articles, for example, but the protocols for citing thusly are not common in traditional scholarly publication and referencing.

§ 33 It is for a combination of these reasons, the burden on the editor and the need for stable and citable publication, combined with the current model for finite-term funding of research projects, that the Inscriptions of Aphrodisias project chose to make the online versions of Roueche 2004 and Reynolds 2007 traditional, one-off publications. This decision meant that if there are additions, emendations, corrections, or updates, these will have to wait for a second edition. (Minor corrections, on the level of typographical errors or broken hyperlinks, can be fixed, but they will be recorded in the project RSS feed.) There may be a more ideal solution to these problems, and we would welcome discussion of this point.

Iterative Research and Transparency

§ 34 In the five categories above I have so far talked about some of the repercussions of delivering a project outcome via digital or online publication. In this final section I want to mention some aspects of a different kind of implication of digital projects: the consequences of performing digital research as well as electronic publication. I have already discussed the fact that in the Inscriptions of Aphrodisias project we committed to making available the XML source files which lie behind the web pages that make up the publication, and the fact that these files can be dynamically linked and repurposed by other projects and applications. The first repercussion of the availability of these source files is to enhance the level to which the research is replicable by other scholars. As well as being able to return to the primary data and the history of scholarship upon which our research is built in order to examine and verify the conclusions we draw, a scholar with access to source code can also verify and replicate the digital processes we have used to enhance this research. This allows the verification of statistical processes, the checking of both markup and generated indexes and tables, and, as mentioned above, the running of new processes, searches, or algorithms on the data. The inclusion of these possibilities, and the large number of photographs and other visual representations of the primary data, opens up the author of such a digital project to a new level of scrutiny, which may on the one hand cause some to feel nervous, but can only be good news for scholarship.

§ 35 Even more central to the research process, however, is the fact that a true digital project is not merely the result of traditional classical research that is at the last minute converted to electronic form and made available online. Rather the XML files (in the case of Inscriptions of Aphrodisias and other EpiDoc projects, other data models for other types of project) that lie behind the publication, are the direct result of, and primary tools for, the academic research itself. These files contain the marked-up data, Greek or Latin texts, descriptions, editorial commentary and argumentation, references and metadata, all in machine-readable and actionable form. It is this single, structured collection of source data which is taken by the machine process and run through a series of XSLT stylesheets which generate, in turn, the web presentations of individual or groups of inscriptions, the contextual tables of contents, indices, concordances, prosopographical and onomastic tables, and so forth.

§ 36 Furthermore, because the XML files and XSLT stylesheets have been developed and used from a very early stage in the project, these indices, concordances, and lists have been available to the researchers as a tool both for checking results, verifying the consistency of markup, and calling attention to patterns, unexpected gaps, or irregularities in the data. Because every word in the corpus, for example, may be tagged as soon as the inscription is transcribed, and the lexicographical index of lemmatised forms automatically generated from these tags, the researcher can look at the index (or other structured representations of this data) for comparisons, exceptions, or illuminating parallels in the corpus. While this may seem to be more work than an editor is accustomed to doing at this point, it should be noted that the work would have to be done eventually, usually at a late stage in the project, and that the automated indexing both saves time later on, and makes the indices more reliable and verifiable. The research process, as always to some extent, is iterative and not linear.

Final comments

§ 37 Many of the arguments above depend merely on the facts that the internet allows wider access, more media, flexible distribution, and relatively cheaper access to publication than the established procedures of the print industry. Others, however, are more fundamental to the way in which academia works. It has always been the case that scholars need to cite primary and secondary texts in retraceable form and argue cogently and replicably from the data to the conclusions, just as it has long been the case that academic language, jargon, abbreviations, and conventions ought to be standardised within (if not between) disciplines. None of the philosophies and practices of the Digital Classics community need therefore be seen as new or unfamiliar. Even the apparently radical practice of the Open Source community, making source code freely available to allow replication of work by others, is analogous to the way humanities scholars have always worked. What this observation does support, however, is that the use of agreed, documented, and open standards in the electronic representation of texts and materials is essential if the potential of the digital media for sharing, re-using, and interacting with scholarly publications is to be reached.


[1]. Inscriptions of Aphrodisias (InsAph). The first publication of the project was Roueche 2004, (a digital second edition of Roueche 1989). See also Bodard & Roueche 2002. I shall refer to the paper first edition as ALA, the electronic second edition as ala2004.

[2]. Elliott 2000-2007; the Markup list can be browsed or joined from; all websites listed were accessed and available in December 2007. On EpiDoc see also Bodard forthcoming 2008.

[3]. EpiDoc is based on the TEI P4. The most recent version of TEI, P5, was released in November of 2007, and EpiDoc will be converted to P5 as soon as possible (TEI P5).

[5]. See e.g. Classics Web, for a web-based Classics outreach project that aims to take advantage of this fact.

[6]. For a single example, see Beacham 2000-2007.

[7]. Now funded from 2007 and in preparation by Reynolds and colleagues at King's College London.

[8]. For example the Pleiades Project is working to generate online versions of the maps in the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, and to surface this same data in KML, Atom, GeoRSS and other formats for harvesting by and display in Google Earth/Maps, Yahoo Maps, Microsoft Virtual Earth, NASA WorldWind, and other geographically aware APIs and search engines.

Works cited

American Journal of Archaeology, <>

Beacham, R. et al. (2000-2007), Theatron , <>

Bodard, G. & Roueche, C. (2002), The EpiDoc Aphrodisias Pilot Project, Forum Archaeologiae 23/VI/2002, <>

Bodard, G. (forthcoming 2008), EpiDoc: Epigraphic documents in XML for publication and interchange in ed. Francisca Feraudi-Gruénais, Latin on Stone: Epigraphic Research and Electronic Archives, Roman Studies: Interdisciplinary Approaches, Rowan & Littlefield.

Bodel, J. (2002-2007), The US Epigraphy Project , <>

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Crane, Gregory R. (1985-2007), The Perseus Project <>

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Elliott, T. et al. (2000-2007), The EpiDoc Collaborative for Epigraphic Documents in TEI XML , <>

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Inscriptions of Roman Cyrenaica, website at <>

The Inscriptions of Roman Tripolitania, edited by J. M. Reynolds and J. B. Ward Perkins. The British School at Rome, Rome and London, 1952

Pleiades Project, <>

Roueche, C. M. (1989), Aphrodisias in Late Antiquity, Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies Monograph 5, London.

Roueche, C. M. (2004), Aphrodisias in Late Antiquity: The Late Roman and Byzantine Inscriptions, revised second edition, 2004, <>

TEI P4: Guidelines for Text Encoding and Interchange , edited by C. M. Sperberg-McQueen and Lou Burnard, 2001-2004 <>

TEI P5: Guidelines for Text Encoding and Interchange , edited by Lou Burnard and Syd Bauman, 2007 <>

Wikipedia, <>

World Wide Web Consortium (1996-2007), Extensible Markup Language (XML) , <>